Symbol Systems for Communication by Children with Multiple Disabilities
When children are not able to use speech effectively, or at all, they may need to use other types of symbols to represent their thoughts or to understand the messages others want to communicate to them. Symbol systems for children who have visual impairments and other disabilities usually use pictures or tactile symbols that can be felt, depending on the child’s ability to see symbols, but they can also use alphabet symbols or words in print or braille. The symbols are usually displayed in some fashion, and the child can express herself by pointing to the symbol that conveys what she wants to communicate. Most symbol systems for children with visual impairments and additional disabilities are designed specifically for the individual child.
Picture Symbol Systems
A picture symbol system for most visually impaired children with multiple disabilities is usually tailor-made to the child. Actual photographs of items or activities the child uses or participates in may be used. To create a symbol system using pictures for your child, you can use a digital camera, which makes it easy to take photos, enlarge them to a size that allows for optimum viewing by your child, and print multiple copies. Drawings may also be used. Regardless of what type of image is chosen, it is important to be sure your child can see the symbols and understand the object or activity that each one represents.
Predesigned, commercially available picture symbol systems, such as Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), can also be used. These pictures are typically used in communication books or on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices. These symbols are usually small and often are abstract, so your child may not be able to see or understand them. If your child’s educational team is considering a commercially made picture symbol system for her, ask that the teacher of students with visual impairments determine whether your child can see the symbols and also where in her communication book or on her AAC device they need to be positioned for optimum viewing.
Tactile Symbol Systems
Like picture symbols, tactile symbols are most often developed specifically for an individual child. An actual object can be used as an object cue, such as a spoon to represent lunchtime. Or part of an object can be used to represent the whole; for example, a small piece of chain might be used to represent going to the park because at the park your child enjoys swinging, and when she swings, she holds onto the chain. An object with a texture that feels like the actual object can also be used. For example, a piece of pillowcase or blanket may be used to signify bedtime. Verbs and feelings may not be easily represented with specific objects in this way. Instead, a unique texture can be used consistently to symbolize such important messages as “Give me a hug” or “I’m angry.”
Once a symbol system has been designed, it can be used in a variety of ways. For example, the symbols may be presented on a board or in a book so that your child can point to the symbols she needs to convey a message. Individual symbols can be arranged in order in a calendar box (usually a series of trays or compartments) to let your child know what activities are scheduled for the day. Symbols can also be used to label an AAC recorded speech device or a keyboard so your child knows what message the button, switch, or key will produce.
Regardless of what symbol system your child uses, it is important that it is used consistently at home, in school, and at activities in the community. Your child’s educational team needs to work together on developing a picture-based or tactile system that everyone who comes in contact with your child can use. Including print with each symbol is important, not necessarily for your child, but for those communicating with her so that they understand clearly what the symbols represent.
For additional information about communication systems, see “Augmentative and Alternative Communication.”
For more information, see Tactile Strategies for Children Who Have Visual Impairments and Multiple Disabilities: Promoting Communication and Learning Skills, by Deborah Chen and June E. Downing.